Industry Glossary

Industry Glossary

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Term Definition
Face
The end of a drift, crosscut or stope in which work is taking place.
Face cleat
The principal cleavage plane or joint at right angles to the stratification of the coal seam.
Face conveyor
Any conveyor used parallel to a working face which delivers coal into another conveyor or into a car.
Factor of safety
The ratio of the ultimate breaking strength of the material to the force exerted against it. If a rope will break under a load of 6000 lbs., and it is carrying a load of 2000 lbs., its factor of safety is 6000 divided by 2000 which equals 3.
Fall
A mass of roof rock or coal which has fallen in any part of a mine.
Fan signal
Automation device designed to give alarm if the main fan slows down or stops.
Fan, auxiliary
A small, portable fan used to supplement the ventilation of an individual working place.
Fan, booster
A large fan installed in the main air current, and thus in tandem with the main fan.
Fault
A break in the Earth's crust caused by tectonic forces which have moved the rock on one side with respect to the other.
Fault
A slip-surface between two portions of the earth's surface that have moved relative to each other. A fault is a failure surface and is evidence of severe earth stresses.
Fault zone
A fault, instead of being a single clean fracture, may be a zone hundreds or thousands of feet wide. The fault zone consists of numerous interlacing small faults or a confused zone of gouge, breccia, or mylonite.
Feeder
A machine that feeds coal onto a conveyor belt evenly.
Feldspar
A group of common rock-forming minerals that includes microcline, orthoclase, plagioclase and others.
Felsic
Term used to describe light-colored rocks containing feldspar, feldspathoids and silica.
Ferrous
Containing iron.
Fill
Any material that is put back in place of the extracted ore to provide ground support.
Fine gold
Fineness is the proportion of pure gold or silver in jewelry or bullion expressed in parts per thousand. Thus, 925 fine gold indicates 925 parts out of 1,000, or 92.5% is pure gold.
Fire damp
The combustible gas, methane, CH4. Also, the explosive methane-air mixtures with between 5% and 15% methane. A combustible gas formed in mines by decomposition of coal or other carbonaceous matter, and that consists chiefly of methane.
Fissure
An extensive crack, break, or fracture in the rocks.
Fixed carbon
The part of the carbon that remains behind when coal is heated in a closed vessel until all of the volatile matter is driven off.

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